Exacerbation[ edit ] An acute exacerbation of COPD is defined as increased shortness of breath, increased sputum production, a change in the color of the sputum from clear to green or yellow, or an increase in cough in someone with COPD.
Note the scales used for females and males differ. The risk is greater in those who are poor, although whether this is due to poverty itself or other risk factors associated with poverty, such as air pollution and malnutrition, is not clear.
On the right are lungs damaged by COPD with an inset showing a cross-section of damaged bronchioles and alveoli. COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease in which chronic, incompletely reversible poor airflow airflow limitation and inability to breathe out fully air trapping exist. This form of disease is called bullous emphysema.
Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to that in asthma. Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors.
Other processes involved with lung damage include oxidative stress produced by high concentrations of free radicals in tobacco smoke and released by inflammatory cells, and breakdown of the connective tissue of the lungs by proteases that are insufficiently inhibited by protease inhibitors. The destruction of the connective mi okozza a súlycsökkenést emphysema esetén of the lungs leads to emphysema, which then contributes to the poor airflow, and finally, poor absorption and release of respiratory gases.
This contributes to the inability to breathe out fully. The greatest reduction in air flow occurs when breathing out, as the pressure in the chest is compressing the airways at this time.
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This can also lead to insufficient ventilationand eventually low blood oxygen levels. Both of these changes result in increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arterieswhich may cause right-sided heart failure secondary to lung disease, also known as cor pulmonale.
Smaller handheld devices are available for office use. The diagnosis of COPD should be considered in anyone over the age of 35 to 40 who has shortness of breatha chronic cough, sputum production, or frequent winter colds and a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease.